Quarter Century of Innovation – aka Happy Birthday Linux!


Screenshot from 2016-08-25 14-35-23

Happy Birthday, Linux! Thank you Linus for that post (and code) from a quarter of a century ago.

I distinctly remember coming across the post above on comp.os.minix while I was trying to figure out something called 386BSD. I was following the 386BSD development by Lynne Jolitz and William Jolitz back when I was in graduate school in OSU. I am not sure where I first heard about 386BSD, but it could have been in some newsgroup or the BYTE magazine (unfortunately I can’t find any references). Suffice to say, the work of 386BSD was subsequently documented by the Dr. Dobb’s Journal from around the 1992. Fortunately, the good people at Dr. Dobb’s Journal have placed their entire contents on the Internet and the first post of the port of 386BSD is now online.

I was back in Singapore by then and was working at CSA Research doing work in building networking functionality for a software engineering project. The development team had access to a SCO Unix machine but because we did not buy “client access licenses” (I think that was what it was called), we could only have exactly 2 users – one on the console via X-Windows and the other via telnet. I was not going to suggest to the management to get the additional access rights (I was told it would cost S$1,500!!) and instead, tried to find out why it was that the 3rd and subsequent login requests were being rejected.

That’s when I discovered that SCO Unix was doing some form of access locking that was part of the login process used by the built-in telnet daemon. I figured that if I can replace the telnet daemon with one that does not do the check, I can get as many people telnetting into the system and using it.

To create a new telnet daemon, I needed the source code and then to compile it. SCO Unix never provided any source code. I managed, however, to get the source code to a telnet daemon (from I think ftp.stanford.edu although I could be wrong).

Remember that during those days, there was no Internet access in Singapore – no TCP/IP access anyway. And the only way to the Internet was via UUCP (and Bitnet at the universities). I used ftpmail@decwrl.com (an ftp via email service by Digital Equipment Corporation) to go out and pull in the code and send it to me via email in 64k uuencoded chunks. Slow, but hey, it worked and it worked well.

Once I got the code, the next challenge was to compile it. We did have the C compiler but for some reason, we did not have the needed crypto library to compile against. That was when I came across the incredible stupidity of labeling cryptography as a munition by the US Department of Commerce. Because of that, we, in Singapore, could not get to the crypto library.

After some checking around, I got to someone who happened to have a full blown SCO Unix system and had the crypto library in their system. I requested that they compile a telnet daemon without the crypto library enabled and to then send me the compiled binary.

After some to and fro via email, I finally received the compiled telnet daemon without the crypto linked in and replaced the telnetd on my SCO Unix machine. Viola, everyone else in the office LAN could telnet in. The multi-user SCO machine was now really multi-user.

That experience was what pushed me to explore what would I need to do to make sure that both crypto code and needed libraries are available to anyone, anywhere. The fact that 386BSD was a US-originated project meant that tying my kite to them would eventually discriminate against me in not being able to get to the best of cryptography and in turn, security and privacy. That was when Linus’ work on Linux became interesting for me.

The fact that this was done outside the US meant that it was not crippled by politics and other shortsighted rules and that if it worked well enough, it could be an interesting operating system.

I am glad that I did make that choice.

The very first Linux distribution I got was from Soft Landing Systems (SLS in short) which I had to get via the amazingly trusty ftpmail@decwrl.com service which happily replied with dozens of 64K uuencoded emails.

What a thrill it was when I started getting serialized uuencoded emails with the goodies in them. I don’t think I have any of the 5.25″ on to which I had to put the uudecoded contents. I do remember selling complete sets of SLS diskettes (all 5.25″ ones) for $10 per box (in addition to the cost of the diskettes). I must have sold it to 10-15 people. Yes, I made money from free software, but it was for the labour and “expertise”.

Fast forward twenty five years to 2016, I have so many systems running Linux (TV, wireless access points, handphones, laptops, set-top boxes etc etc etc) that if I were asked to point to ONE thing that made and is still making a huge difference to all of us, I will point to Linux.

The impact of Linux on society cannot be accurately quantified.  It is hard. Linux is like water. It is everywhere and that is the beauty of it. In choosing the GPLv2 license for Linux, Linus released a huge amount of value for all of humanity. He paid forward.

It is hard to predict what the next 25 years will mean and how Linux will impact us all, but if the first 25 years is a hint, it cannot but be spectacular. What an amazing time to be alive.

Happy birthday Linux. You’ve defined how we should be using and adoption technology. You’ve disrupted and continue to disrupt, industries all over the place. You’ve helped define what it means to share ideas openly and freely. You’ve shown what happens when we collaborate and work together. Free and Open Source is a win-win for all and Linux is the Gold Standard of that.

Linux (and Linus) You done well and thank you!

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From 1995: Masterlist of SG DNS Proposals


I was actively involved with the formulation and nomenclature of the domain name system for Singapore. These were during the early days of the Internet here and was really a collaboration of technologists and interested parties.

I was the main editor of the SG DNS proposals and all of these were documented and hosted on my home page at Pacific Internet – home.pacific.net.sg/~harish. Unfortunately, all of that is now no longer available, but fortunately, I managed to rescue it before Pacific Internet disappeared.

Here they are:

March 20th 1995: version 0.1:

Hi.  Here is the 1st cut of the the pertinent aspects of the proposed SG naming
scheme.

Comments are sought.

===========================================================================
Harish Pillay
March 20th 1995
SG-DNS-NAMES-RFC Version 0.1

                The SG Domain

Status of this Memo

This is an alpha version of a proposed SG Internet Domain Naming
Scheme.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

This memo would eventually take the form of a RFC and would be binding
to all Internet access sites under the SG domain.

Naming Structure

Singapore being a city-state enjoys a status where we do not have states 
as political subdivisions.  Hence the proposed hierarchy for SG domain
is reduced by one level. 

The SG domain will use 2-letter name tokens in it's 2nd tier level so 
as to keep the full domain name short and succinct.

The proposed hierarchy is as follows:

   co.sg: All commercial organizations - sole proprietorships, private
          limited companies and public-listed companies.
   ac.sg: All tertiary institutions awarding diplomas and degrees.
   pte.ac.sg: The option for commercially-run schools to be placed under
              this domain or under co.sg.
   re.sg: All research-only organizations that do not themselves conduct 
          academic courses on which diplomas/degrees are awarded.  ISEAS 
          will fall under this.
   go.sg: All government related entities.
   or.sg: Organizations that are clubs, societies, associations and including
          political parties.  This domain name can have a one more level to 
          indicate entities such as community centers, resident's committees
          and political parties.
   cc.or.sg: Community Centers
   rc.or.sg: Residents' Committees
   po.or.sg: Political Organization.
   tc.sg: All town councils.
   pu.sg: Miscellaneous, public knowledge organizations or information
          kiosks.  Hence, www.sg will be www.pu.sg if the govt/NCB/Technet
          does not want ownership.
   sh.sg: All schools under the Ministry of Education and includes independent,
          autonomous and privately-run schools. This is not the complete domain
          name as all schools have to be identified under as to whether they 
          are junior colleges or secondary or primary or private schools.
   jc.sh.sg: All Junior Colleges - example raffles.jc.sh.sg, temasek.jc.sh.sg.
   sec.sh.sg: All secondary schools - example raffles.sec.sh.sg,
              temasek.sec.sh.sg, raffles-girls.sec.sh.sg
   pri.sh.sg: All primary schools - raffles-girls.pri.sh.sg, temasek.pri.sh.sg.
   pte.sh.sg: All privately run schools.  They have the option of 
              being under co.sg as these are commercially run entities.
   ne.sg: All networks.
   te.sg: All technical education institutions that award technican 
          certificates.

Where to go from here

As this is a working document, comments are sought to ensure that the
nomenclature is well thought out and robust.  Guidelines on accessibility,
conflict resolution and any others will be added to this document.  

I will be the chief maintainer of this SG-DNS-NAMES-RFC.

The final document will be modeled very much after RFC 1480 The US Domain.
==============================================================================

March 21st 1995: version 0.2:

NOTE:  This version discusses a DNS structure with 3-letters in it's
2nd tier.
============================================================================
Harish Pillay
March 21st 1995
SG-DNS-NAMES-RFC Version 0.2

				The SG Domain

Status of this Memo

This is an alpha version of a proposed SG Internet Domain Naming
Scheme.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

This memo would eventually take the form of a RFC and would be binding
to all Internet access sites under the SG domain.

Naming Structure

Singapore being a city-state enjoys a status where we do not have states 
as a political subdivision.  This lets us tag the numerous entities we 
have to the second tier.  This lets the SG domain to be creative in
it's structure.

Additional criteria to the structure are:
   a) Scalability:  The DN must be scalable allowing for growth that is
                    manageable and maintainable.
   b) Addition of new 2nd tiers:  This DN uses three letters in it's 2nd tier
                    instead of two letters as a trade off to provide a 
                    mechanism for new, yet unknown, additions.
   c) Pronounceability: This is NOT important and is used only when there
                    is a choice of multiple names.  The preference will be 
                    given to the one that is pronouceable.
   d) Identifiability:  The domain name should help identify the nature of
                    the domain - be it educational, commercial and so on. This
                    is to allow for the creation of individual, user-centered
                    domain names.

The SG domain will use 3-letter name tokens in it's 2nd tier level.  

The proposed hierarchy is as follows:

   com.sg: All commercial organizations - sole proprietorships, private
           limited companies and public-listed companies.  Entries in this
           group have to be registered with the Registry of Companies and
           Businesses.  This DN could potentially grow to levels that it
           may not be easily managed.  At the state of current technology,
           when the number of sites reach about 30,000, the com.sg will
           be closed.  The number indicated will be reviewed, upwards in
           all likelihood, from time to time to account for technical 
           advances.

   bus.sg: Businesses both private limited and public companies.
   tra.sg: Trading - chiefly sole proprietorships.
   mnc.sg: Multinational Companies that have a global reach but are
           Singapore-based/headquartered.
           The three domain names above are to handle spill overs from
           the com.sg domain space when it fills up.
 
   edu.sg: All tertiary institutions awarding diplomas and degrees.  This
           would mean that all current ac.sg sites and nus.sg will have a
           CNAME record in the primary and secondary nameservers to 
           provide the mapping.  At a future date to be determined by the
           proposed SGNIC, the CNAME translation will be dropped.

   pte.edu.sg: The option for commercially-run schools to be placed under
              this domain or under com.sg.

   res.sg: All research-only establishments that do not themselves conduct 
          academic courses on which diplomas/degrees are awarded.  ISEAS,
          IME, IMCB and other research-only establishments would be 
          appropriate candidates.  ISS, on the other hand, would fall under 
          edu.sg as they award diplomas.  They do not have to fall under 
          nus.edu.sg.  Similarly for ICIS.

   gov.sg: All government related entities.  This is potentially a large
          domain and would have to be subdivided into a third tier as such:

   	mindef.gov.sg: Ministry of Defense.
   	mita.gov.sg: Ministry of Information and the Arts.
   	env.gov.sg: Environment Ministry.
   	moe.gov.sg: Ministry of Education.
   	law.gov.sg: Law Ministry.
   	mha.gov.sg: Ministry of Home Affairs.
   	health.gov.sg: Ministry of Health.
   	mti.gov.sg: Ministry of Trade and Industry.
   	finance.gov.sg: Ministry of Finance.
   	mnd.gov.sg: Ministry of National Development.
   	mincom.gov.sg: Ministry of Communication.
   	mcd.gov.sg: Ministry of Community Development

        Departments that fall under each department, for example, Public
        Works Department, has the choice of being pwd.mnd.gov.sg or pwd.gov.sg.
        This is a policy decision that is not addressed in this RFC.  It will
        be mutually decided upon jointly by the Domain Name Administrators
        of both gov.sg and mnd.gov.sg. 

   org.sg: Organizations that are clubs, societies, associations and including
          political parties.  This domain name can have a one more level to 
          indicate entities such as community centers, resident's committees
          and political parties.

         cc.org.sg: Community Centers.
         rc.org.sg: Residents' Committees.
         po.org.sg: Political Organization.
         rotary.org.sg: The Rotary Club.
         lions.org.sg: The Lions Club.

   twc.sg: All town councils.

   gen.sg: General .sg-wide services domain.  This is a catch-all for public 
          knowledge services and information kiosks.  This will have specific 
          .sg wide domains that do not have specific ownership by any one of
          the entities in other name spaces.  Examples are:

          www.gen.sg:  The well-known DN to all WWW servers under .sg.
          gohper.gen.sg: The well-known DN to all gophers under .sg
          whois.gen.sg:  The well-known WHOIS server for .sg
          ns.gen.sg: The well-known nameserver for .sg

          The entity that manages .sg will also manage gen.sg as well as
          these well-known domains.  The management of such name spaces
          will be neutral and transparent.

   sch.sg: All schools under the Ministry of Education and includes independent,
          autonomous and privately-run schools. This is not the complete domain
          name as all schools have to be identified under as to whether they 
          are junior colleges, institutes or secondary or primary or private 
          schools.

   jc.sch.sg: All Junior Colleges 
              anderson.jc.sch.sg,
              anglo-chinese.jc.sch.sg, 
              catholic.jc.sch.sg,
              hwa-chong.jc.sch.sg,
              jurong.jc.sch.sg,
              nanyang.jc.sch.sg,
              national.jc.sch.sg,
              serangoon.jc.sch.sg,
              st-andrews.jc.sch.sg,
              raffles.jc.sch.sg, 
              tampines.jc.sch.sg.
              temasek.jc.sch.sg.
              victoria.jc.sch.sg,
              yishun.jc.sch.sg.

   inst.sch.sg: All 3-year pre-university schools:
               jurong.inst.sch.sg, 
               outram.inst.sch.sg, 
               seletar.inst.sch.sg, 
               townsville.inst.sch.sg.

   sec.sch.sg: All secondary schools.  The names can be either the commonly
               known initial or a full name to remove ambiguity.  The aim
               is to keep the name identifiable with what is commonly 
               used.  For example: 
               ri.sec.sch.sg: Raffles Institution
               sji.sec.sch.sg: St Joseph's Institution
               asci.sec.sch.sg: ACS (Independent).
               acs.sec.sch.sg: ACS (Barker Road).
               temasek.sec.sch.sg: Temasek Secondary School.
               raffles-girls.sec.sch.sg: Raffles Girls' Secondary School.
               tkgs.sec.sch.sg: Tanjong Katong Girls' Secondary School.

   pri.sch.sg: All primary schools - raffles-girls.pri.sch.sg, 
               temasek.pri.sch.sg.

   pte.sch.sg: All privately-run and special education schools.  The private
               schools have the option of being under co.sg as these are 
               commercially run entities.

   net.sg: All networks.

   tec.sg: All technical education entities that award technician
           certificates. Hence, campuses of the ITE will be under this name space.

   nii.sg: The National Information Infrastructure.  NII could conceivably
           be placed under gen.sg.  However, in the interests of brevity 
           the NII should have it's own name space on the second tier.

   ten.sg: The Tendered out - vanity - name space.  This name space will be
           held by the SGNIC authority.  Under this name space, there will
           be any number of names that can be leased.  For example, a name
           such as superman.ten.sg can be put up for auction and the highest
           bidder will win the right to lease it.  There will be a monthly 
           rental fee to all such names leased out.  SGNIC will ensure that
           all such names leased out are within the boundaries of common
           decencies and conforms to the laws of the Republic of Singapore.
           Hence, commonly construed vulgar and rude terms will not be 
           available for leasing.  The monies derived from such leases will
           be used to offset the operations of the SGNIC.

           The advantage of the ten.sg is that it offers individuals to have
           their personal name space within the domain name scheme and is not
           tied to a corporation or educational entity.

April 18th, 1995: version 0.3:

This is Version 0.3 of the proposed SG-DNS-NAMES-RFC.

Comments sought, please.  

Summary of changes - from 0.2:

a) Added biz.sg as a potential holder of spill-over from com.sg.
b) Kept sch.sg hierarchy.
c) Dropped ite.sg.
d) Dropped res.sg.
e) Dropped ten.sg.
f) Dropped gen.sg.
g) Dropped twc.sg.
h) Added www.sg.
i) Process for DNS requests/reclamation of DNS.
j) Process for adding new Second Level DNS.

Regards.
==========================================================================
Harish Pillay h.pillay@ieee.org
April 18th 1995
SG-DNS-NAMES-RFC Version 0.3

				The SG Domain

1.0 Status of this Memo

1.1 This is an alpha version of a proposed SG Internet Domain Naming
Scheme.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

1.2 This memo would eventually take the form of a RFC and would be binding
to all Internet access sites under the SG domain.

2.0 Naming Structure

2.1 Singapore being a city-state enjoys a status where we do not have states 
as a political subdivision.  This lets us tag the numerous entities we have 
to the second tier.  This lets the SG domain to be creative in it's structure.

2.2 Additional criteria to the structure are:
   a) Scalability:  The DN must be scalable allowing for growth that is
                    manageable, logical, maintainable and sensible.
   b) Addition of new 2nd tiers:  This DN uses three letters in it's 2nd tier
                    instead of two letters as a trade off to provide a 
                    mechanism for new, yet unknown, future additions.
   c) Pronounceability: This is NOT important and is used only when there
                    is a choice of multiple names.  The preference will be 
                    given to the one that is pronouceable.
   d) Identifiability:  The domain name should help identify the nature of
                    the domain - be it educational, commercial and so on. This
                    is to allow for the creation of individual, user-centered
                    domain names.

2.3 The SG domain will use 3-letter name tokens in it's 2nd tier level.  

2.4 The proposed hierarchy is as follows:

   com.sg: All commercial organizations - sole proprietorships, private
           limited companies and public-listed companies.  Entries in this
           group have to be registered with the Registry of Companies and
           Businesses.  This DN could potentially grow to levels that it
           may not be easily managed.  At the state of current technology,
           when the number of sites reach about 30,000, the com.sg will
           be closed.  The number indicated will be reviewed, upwards in
           all likelihood, from time to time to account for technical 
           advances.

   biz.sg: Same as com.sg.  This DNS will not be used until the .com.sg
	   second level is "full" based on the suggested 30,000 names.
 
   edu.sg: All institutions not under the conventional definition of a
	   school.  These include universities, polytechnics, and institutes 
	   of special and technical education.  This would mean that all 
	   current ac.sg sites and nus.sg will have a CNAME record in the 
	   primary and secondary nameservers to provide the mapping.  At a 
	   future date to be determined by the proposed SGNIC, the CNAME 
	   translation will be dropped.

   sch.sg: All schools under the Ministry of Education and including 
	   independent, autonomous and privately-run schools. This is not 
	   the complete domain name as all schools have to be identified 
	   under as to whether they are junior colleges, institutes or 
	   secondary or primary or private schools.

   jc.sch.sg: All Junior Colleges and the following are examples:
              anderson.jc.sch.sg,
              anglo-chinese.jc.sch.sg, 
              catholic.jc.sch.sg,
              hwa-chong.jc.sch.sg,
              jurong.jc.sch.sg,
              nanyang.jc.sch.sg,
              national.jc.sch.sg,
              serangoon.jc.sch.sg,
              st-andrews.jc.sch.sg,
              raffles.jc.sch.sg, 
              tampines.jc.sch.sg,
              temasek.jc.sch.sg,
              victoria.jc.sch.sg,
              yishun.jc.sch.sg.

   inst.sch.sg: All 3-year pre-university schools (for example):
               jurong.inst.sch.sg, 
               outram.inst.sch.sg, 
               seletar.inst.sch.sg, 
               townsville.inst.sch.sg.

   sec.sch.sg: All secondary schools.  The names can be either the commonly
               known initials or a full name to remove ambiguity.  The aim
               is to keep the name identifiable with what is in common use.
               For example: 
               ri.sec.sch.sg: Raffles Institution
               sji.sec.sch.sg: St Joseph's Institution
               asci.sec.sch.sg: ACS (Independent).
               acs.sec.sch.sg: ACS (Barker Road).
               temasek.sec.sch.sg: Temasek Secondary School.
               raffles-girls.sec.sch.sg: Raffles Girls' Secondary School.
               tkgs.sec.sch.sg: Tanjong Katong Girls' Secondary School.

   pri.sch.sg: All primary schools - raffles-girls.pri.sch.sg, 
               temasek.pri.sch.sg.

   pte.sch.sg: All privately-run and special education schools.  The private
               schools have the option of being under com.sg as these are 
               commercially run entities.

   net.sg: All networks.  So technet.sg would be technet.net.sg, singnet.com.sg
	   would be singnet.net.sg.  A distinction needs to be made for what
	   is currently happening.  As these two existing sites provide
	   both dialup and leased line services, the aspect of their activity
	   that is dialup shall remain as singnet.com.sg while the leased
	   line component shall be singnet.net.sg.

   gov.sg: All government related entities.  This is potentially a large
          domain and would have to be subdivided into a third tier as such:
	  Some suggested examples of such DNS are:
	  mindef.gov.sg: Ministry of Defense.
   	  mita.gov.sg: Ministry of Information and the Arts.
   	  env.gov.sg: Environment Ministry.
   	  moe.gov.sg: Ministry of Education.
   	  law.gov.sg: Law Ministry.
   	  mha.gov.sg: Ministry of Home Affairs.
   	  health.gov.sg: Ministry of Health.
   	  mti.gov.sg: Ministry of Trade and Industry.
   	  finance.gov.sg: Ministry of Finance.
   	  mnd.gov.sg: Ministry of National Development.
   	  mincom.gov.sg: Ministry of Communication.
   	  mcd.gov.sg: Ministry of Community Development.
   	  jud.gov.sg: The Judiciary.
	  parl.gov.sg: The Parliament.
	  pmo.gov.sg: The Prime Minister's Office.
	  prez.gov.sg: The President's Office.
	  www.gov.sg: The Web site for the government.

        Departments that under a ministry, for example, Public Works 
	Department, has the choice of being pwd.mnd.gov.sg or pwd.gov.sg.
	This is a policy decision that is not addressed in this RFC.  It will
        be mutually decided upon jointly by the Domain Name Administrators
        of both gov.sg and mnd.gov.sg. 

   org.sg: Organizations that are clubs, societies, associations and including
          political parties.  This domain name can have a one more level to 
          indicate entities such as community centers, resident's committees
          and political parties.

         cc.org.sg: Community Centers.
         rc.org.sg: Residents' Committees.
         po.org.sg: Political Organization.
         rotary.org.sg: The Rotary Club.
         lions.org.sg: The Lions Club.
	 twc.org.sg: The Town Councils.

   www.sg: A main web server for SG domain.  This Web server does not
	 necessarily belong to the government nor it's officers.  It is 
	 meant to be a common entry point to all Web sites in the SG 
	 domain and shall remain neutral.  This Second Level DNS does 
	 not have subsidiary levels.

   nii.sg: The National Information Infrastructure.  

3.0 Request for DNS Support

3.1 Any entity or individual can request for a domain name under the SG
hierarchy.  

3.2 An individual or entity is not restricted to her/their choice of an 
internet access/service provider.  If the chosen IAP/ISP is not one that 
operates under the SG domain, then the requestor will be levied an annual 
administrative charge to cover the cost of providing the DNS support.  

3.3 The SGNIC or some such entity will decide on the charges for such
administrative activities.  The cost should not be prohibitive and must
be reasonable.  The SIGNIC or some such entity will have to right to
waive such administrative charges on a case by case basis.

3.4 Support for an entity under the SG domain does not imply that such
an organization is physically located in the political and geographical
entity of Singapore.  Being under the SG domain is a logical association
rather than a physical one.  This is exactly what is the case when
an entity is registered under the Top Level Domain of .com, .org, .int
and .net.

3.5 Such a scheme allows for organizations that belong to a SG entity - 
for example, the Singapore Embassy in Manila - to be under the DNS 
embassy-manila.mfa.gov.sg even though they are physically located in Manila.

3.6 Domain names requested for shall be names that are not commonly regarded 
as words that are derogatory or potentially offensive.  The SGNIC will reject
all such requests.  The requestor whose domain name request was denied shall
appeal to the Chief Administrator of SGNIC for reconsideration.  The Chief 
Administrator of SGNIC decision on this issue shall be final.
  
4.0 Resolution of Name Conflicts

4.1 All requests for a domain name will be accepted on a first come, first
served basis.

4.2 Should there be a conflict of names, the second and all subsequent 
requestors will be told of such (see also 5.0 below) and asked to pick a 
new one.

4.3 DNS registration requests will be provided on a form modelled after
what is used by APNIC and Internic - duly modified for our purposes.

4.4 Entities registering under the com.sg/biz.sg/*.org.sg shall provide to
the SGNIC or some such entity proof of their existence by way of a 
business certificate or a copy of a government gazette indicating that
they are indeed legally constituted entities.  Failing to provide such
proof puts the application on hold and the requestor will be duly notified.
After one week of being notified, the application will be rejected if nothing
is forthcoming and the application sent back to the requestor.

4.5 Should a domain name be granted and subsequently found to be a tradename
or copyrighted by some other entity, the SGNIC or some such entity that
granted the domain name will not be liable for any legal action.  It is
upto the holder of the legal tradename or copyright to settle the right
of use and ownership with the holder of the domain name.

5.0 Reclaiming Domainnames

5.1 Reclaiming of domainnames will be done only when there is a request for
registration of an existing domain name.  When such a request is made, the
SGNIC will inform the current holders of the requested domain name to
indicate if the domain name is active and in use.  If the domain name holder
does not indicate that the domain name is in use or active, the SGNIC
will reclaim the domain name and re-issue it to the new requestor.

5.2 In order that this reclamation is done fairly, SGNIC will with due
diligence and in good faith, inform the current known holder of the domain 
name using all normal means of communication including electronic mail, 
postal mail, fax and phone calls.

5.3 A period of one month shall be provided to let the current holder
of a domain name to respond.  Failing which, the SGNIC will consider that
the domain name has been given up and re-issue it to the new requestor.

6.0 Adding New Second Level Domains

6.1 The SG domain structure is designed to be extended at the second
level when needed.

6.2 A second level domain (SLD) shall be created when there is an obvious
need for one.  It shall be proposed to the SGNIC by anyone from the Internet
community in Singapore or could have been brought up by the SGNIC on it's
own.

6.3 A public discussion period of at least one month is needed to determine
if there really is a need for such a SLD.

6.4 After the one month period, the SGNIC will decide after considering
all the arguments stated for and against such a request.  This decision
will be made in good faith and with the intention to make the SG domain
structure clear and consistent.

=============================================================================

July 10th, 1995: version 0.4:

Hi.  After a long time, here is the next incarnation of the SG DNS proposal.
This is version 0.4.  It will be available on the web at: 
	http://home.pacific.net.sg/~harish/sg-dns.4.html 

Thanks. 
==================
This is Version 0.4 of the proposed SG-DNS-NAMES-RFC.  Comments sought, 
please. 

Summary of changes - from 0.3: 
a) Dropped sch.sg 
b) Rearranged responsibilities for the *.edu.sg.
c) Added new SLD pob.sg 
d) Clarified delegation and administration responsibilities for the various
   domains.

Summary:

All the salient points from the discussions previously have been considered
and I do accept the arguments againt sch.sg.  Although I personally feel
that it should be kept, I am taking into consideration the general feeling
on this matter.

On the issue of edu.sg being across the board, I will stand by the need for
nus.sg and all *.ac.sg to migrate to edu.sg.  I hate confusing domain names.
The worst of the lot is a mixture of 2- and 3-letter second LD.  It is 
inconsistent and unnecessary.  It should either be 2 or 3. 

I am adding the pob.sg as a candidate for persistent e-mail and as a tendered-
out third level domain.  The ideas there come from some work being done at
the NCB and also from Dave Conrad's tendering scheme (which I dropped in
version 0.3). 

Regards. 

=======================================================================
Harish Pillay h.pillay@ieee.org
July 10th 1995
SG-DNS-NAMES-RFC Version 0.4

			The SG Domain

1.0 Status of this Memo 

1.1 This is an alpha version of a proposed SG Internet Domain Naming
Scheme.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited. 

1.2 This memo would eventually take the form of a RFC and would be binding
to all Internet access sites under the SG domain. 

2.0 Naming Structure 

2.1 Singapore being a city-state enjoys a status where we do not have states 
as a political subdivision.  This lets us tag the numerous entities we have 
to the second tier.  This lets the SG domain to be creative in it's structure. 

2.2 Additional criteria to the structure are: 
   a) Scalability:  The DN must be scalable allowing for growth that is
                    manageable, logical, maintainable and sensible.
   b) Addition of new 2nd tiers:  This DN uses three letters in it's 2nd tier
                    instead of two letters as a trade off to provide a 
                    mechanism for new, yet unknown, future additions.
   c) Pronounceability: This is NOT important and is used only when there
                    is a choice of multiple names.  The preference will be 
                    given to the one that is pronouceable.
   d) Identifiability:  The domain name should help identify the nature of
                    the domain - be it educational, commercial and so on. This
                    is to allow for the creation of individual, user-centered
                    domain names.

2.3 The SG domain will use 3-letter name tokens in it's 2nd tier level.  

2.4 The proposed hierarchy is as follows:

   com.sg: All commercial organizations - sole proprietorships, private
           limited companies and public-listed companies.  Entries in this
           group have to be registered with the Registry of Companies and
           Businesses.  This DN could potentially grow to levels that it
           may not be easily managed.  At the state of current technology,
           when the number of sites reach about 30,000, the com.sg will
           be closed.  The number indicated will be reviewed, upwards in
           all likelihood, from time to time to account for technical 
           advances.

	   Administered by SGNIC.

   biz.sg: Same as com.sg.  This DNS will not be used until the .com.sg
	   second level is "full" based on the suggested 30,000 names.

	   Administered by SGNIC.
 
   edu.sg: This will be the second-level for all educational
           institutions. These include universities, polytechnics, and
           institutes of special and technical education junior colleges,
           secondary and primary schools and kindergartens.  This would
           mean that all current ac.sg sites and nus.sg will have a CNAME
           record in the primary and secondary nameservers to provide the
           mapping.  At a future date to be determined by the proposed SGNIC,
           the CNAME translation will be dropped.

	   The delegation of the edu.sg will be held by SGNIC.  SGNIC will
	   delegate the following to the respective institutions:

	   nus.edu.sg: National University of Singapore NIC or equivalent
	   ntu.edu.sg: Nanyang Technologial University NIC or equivalent
	   sp.edu.sg: Singapore Polytechnic NIC or equivalent
	   np.edu.sg: Ngee Ann Polytechnic NIC or equivalent
	   tp.edu.sg: Temasek Polytechnic NIC or equivalent
	   nyp.edu.sg: Nanyang Polytechnic NIC or equivalent

   	   All schools under the Ministry of Education and including 
	   independent, autonomous and privately-run schools will be 
	   placed under one of the following:

	   jc.edu.sg, inst.edu.sg, sec.edu.sg, pri.edu.sg, pte.edu.sg

	   The authority for the preceding third-level will be be with
	   the Ministry of Education NIC or equivalent.  

	   Here are some examples of these sites:
	   All Junior Colleges and the following are examples:
              anderson.jc.edu.sg,
              anglo-chinese.jc.edu.sg, 
              catholic.jc.edu.sg,
              hwa-chong.jc.edu.sg,
              jurong.jc.edu.sg,
              nanyang.jc.edu.sg,
              national.jc.edu.sg,
              serangoon.jc.edu.sg,
              st-andrews.jc.edu.sg,
              raffles.jc.edu.sg, 
              tampines.jc.edu.sg,
              temasek.jc.edu.sg,
              victoria.jc.edu.sg,
              yishun.jc.edu.sg.

	   All 3-year pre-university schools (for example):
              jurong.inst.edu.sg, 
              outram.inst.edu.sg, 
              seletar.inst.edu.sg, 
              townsville.inst.edu.sg.

	   All secondary schools.  The names can be either the commonly
           known initials or a full name to remove ambiguity.  The aim
           is to keep the name identifiable with what is in common use.
           For example: 
              ri.sec.edu.sg: Raffles Institution
              sji.sec.edu.sg: St Joseph's Institution
              asci.sec.edu.sg: ACS (Independent).
              acs.sec.edu.sg: ACS (Barker Road).
              temasek.sec.edu.sg: Temasek Secondary School.
              raffles-girls.sec.edu.sg: Raffles Girls' Secondary School.
              tkgs.sec.edu.sg: Tanjong Katong Girls' Secondary School.

	   All primary schools - raffles-girls.pri.sch.sg, 
               temasek.pri.edu.sg.

	   All privately-run and special education schools.  The private
           schools have the option of being under com.sg as these are 
           commercially run entities.

	   Administered by SGNIC.

   net.sg: All networks.  So technet.sg would be technet.net.sg (or whatever
	   the new network is to be called), singnet.com.sg would be 
	   singnet.net.sg.  A distinction needs to be made for what
	   is currently happening.  As these two existing sites provide
	   both dialup and leased line services, the aspect of their activity
	   that is dialup shall remain as singnet.com.sg while the leased
	   line component shall be singnet.net.sg.

	   Administered by SGNIC.

   gov.sg: All government related entities.  This is potentially a large
          domain and would have to be subdivided into a third tier as such:
	  Some suggested examples of such DNS are:
	  mindef.gov.sg: Ministry of Defense.
   	  mita.gov.sg: Ministry of Information and the Arts.
   	  env.gov.sg: Environment Ministry.
   	  moe.gov.sg: Ministry of Education.
   	  law.gov.sg: Law Ministry.
   	  mha.gov.sg: Ministry of Home Affairs.
   	  health.gov.sg: Ministry of Health.
   	  mti.gov.sg: Ministry of Trade and Industry.
   	  finance.gov.sg: Ministry of Finance.
   	  mnd.gov.sg: Ministry of National Development.
   	  mincom.gov.sg: Ministry of Communication.
   	  mcd.gov.sg: Ministry of Community Development.
   	  jud.gov.sg: The Judiciary.
	  parl.gov.sg: The Parliament.
	  pmo.gov.sg: The Prime Minister's Office.
	  prez.gov.sg: The President's Office.
	  www.gov.sg: The Web site for the government.

	  Departments that under a ministry, for example, Public Works 
	  Department, has the choice of being pwd.mnd.gov.sg or pwd.gov.sg.
	  This is a policy decision that is not addressed in this RFC.  It 
	  will be mutually decided upon jointly by the Domain Name 
	  Administrators of both gov.sg and mnd.gov.sg. 

	  Administered by SGNIC.

   org.sg: Organizations that are clubs, societies, associations and including
          political parties.  This domain name can have a one more level to 
          indicate entities such as community centers, resident's committees
          and political parties.

          cc.org.sg: Community Centers.
          rc.org.sg: Residents' Committees.
          po.org.sg: Political Organization.
          rotary.org.sg: The Rotary Club.
          lions.org.sg: The Lions Club.
	  twc.org.sg: The Town Councils.

	  Administered by SGNIC.

   www.sg: A main web server for SG domain.  This Web server does not
	 necessarily belong to the government nor it's officers.  It is 
	 meant to be a common entry point to all Web sites in the SG 
	 domain and shall remain neutral.  This Second Level DNS does 
	 not have subsidiary levels.

	 Administered by SGNIC.

   nii.sg: The National Information Infrastructure.  

	 Administered by SGNIC.

   pob.sg: The e-mail post office box persistent address mechanism.  This is 
	 a scheme to provide a persistent e-mail address to users that are 
	 independent of their internet access provider/employer/school.  This 
	 mecahnism will operate via the establishment of third-level domains 
	 to whom users can subscribe to.  These third LDs will provide just 
	 the routing of address to real e-mail addresses.  As this domain can 
	 become very large and has to be broken down into sections that can be 
	 put out for tender/bid/auction valid for say five (5) years.  The 
	 exact nature of this third LD will be up to SGNIC to propose.

	 Administered by SGNIC.

3.0 Request for DNS Support

3.1 Any entity or individual can request for a domain name under the SG
hierarchy.  

3.2 An individual or entity is not restricted to her/their choice of an 
internet access/service provider.  If the chosen IAP/ISP is not one that 
operates under the SG domain, then the requestor will be levied an annual 
administrative charge to cover the cost of providing the DNS support.  

3.3 The SGNIC or some such entity will decide on the charges for such
administrative activities.  The cost should not be prohibitive and must
be reasonable.  The SGNIC or some such entity will have to right to waive 
such administrative charges on a case by case basis.

3.4 Support for an entity under the SG domain does not imply that such
an organization is physically located in the political and geographical
entity of Singapore.  Being under the SG domain is a logical association
rather than a physical one.  This is exactly what is the case when
an entity is registered under the Top Level Domain of .com, .org, .int
and .net.

3.5 Such a scheme allows for organizations that belong to a SG entity - 
for example, the Singapore Embassy in Manila - to be under the DNS 
embassy-manila.mfa.gov.sg even though they are physically located in Manila.

3.6 Domain names requested for shall be names that are not commonly regarded 
as words that are derogatory or potentially offensive.  The language used
to determine will be English and transliterations of words into English from 
other common languages.  The SGNIC will reject all such requests.  The 
requestor whose domain name request was denied shall appeal to the Chief 
Administrator of SGNIC for reconsideration.  The Chief Administrator of 
SGNIC decision on this issue shall be final.
  
4.0 Resolution of Name Conflicts

4.1 All requests for a domain name will be accepted on a first come, first
served basis.

4.2 Should there be a conflict of names, the second and all subsequent 
requestors will be told of such (see also 5.0 below) and asked to pick a 
new one.

4.3 DNS registration requests will be provided on a form modelled after
what is used by APNIC and Internic - modified as appropriate for terminology
and context.

4.4 Entities registering under the com.sg/biz.sg/*.org.sg shall provide to
the SGNIC or some such entity proof of their existence by way of a business 
certificate or a copy of a government gazette indicating that they are indeed 
legally constituted entities.  Failing to provide such proof puts the 
application on hold and the requestor will be duly notified.  After one week 
of being notified, the application will be rejected if nothing is forthcoming 
and the application sent back to the requestor.

4.5 Should a domain name be granted and subsequently found to be a tradename
or copyrighted by some other entity, the SGNIC or some such entity that
 granted the domain name will not be liable for any legal action.  It is upto 
the holder of the legal tradename or copyright to settle the right of use and 
ownership with the holder of the domain name.

5.0 Reclaiming Domainnames

5.1 Reclaiming of domainnames will be done only when there is a request for
registration of an existing domain name.  When such a request is made, the
SGNIC will inform the current holders of the requested domain name to indicate 
if the domain name is active and in use.  If the domain name holder does not 
indicate that the domain name is in use or active, the SGNIC will reclaim the 
domain name and re-issue it to the new requestor.

5.2 In order that this reclamation is done fairly, SGNIC will with due 
diligence and in good faith, inform the current known holder of the domain 
name using all normal means of communication including electronic mail, 
postal mail, fax and phone calls.

5.3 A period of one month shall be provided to let the current holder
of a domain name to respond.  Failing which, the SGNIC will consider that
the domain name has been given up and re-issue it to the new requestor.

6.0 Adding New Second Level Domains

6.1 The SG domain structure is designed to be extended at the second
level when needed.

6.2 A second level domain (SLD) shall be created when there is an obvious
need for one.  It shall be proposed to the SGNIC by anyone from the Internet
community in Singapore or could have been brought up by the SGNIC on it's
own.

6.3 A public discussion period of at least one month is needed to determine
if there really is a need for such a SLD.

6.4 After the one month period, the SGNIC will decide after considering
all the arguments stated for and against such a request.  This decision
will be made in good faith and with the intention to make the SG domain
structure clear and consistent.

===============
-- 
Harish Pillay 				| harish@csah.com, h.pillay@ieee.org
Senior Technical Consultant		| http://www.csah.com/~harish
CSA Pte Ltd, 221 Henderson Rd #05-03,	| +(65)-371-9820 (work), 276-4968 (fax)
Singapore 0315, Republic of Singapore.  |    ++++ Ask me about Linux ++++

July 11th 1995, version 0.5:

This is Version 0.5 of the proposed SG-DNS-NAMES-RFC.  Comments sought, 
please.  

Summary of changes - from 0.4:
a) Changed requirement for registering org.sg
b) Added 4.5.
 
Summary 0.3 to 0.4:

All the salient points from the discussions previously have been considered
and I do accept the arguments againt sch.sg.  Although I personally feel
that it should be kept, I am taking into consideration the general feeling
on this matter.

On the issue of edu.sg being across the board, I will stand by the need for
nus.sg and all *.ac.sg to migrate to edu.sg.  I hate confusing domain names.
The worst of the lot is a mixture of 2- and 3-letter second LD.  It is 
inconsistent and unnecessary.  It should either be 2 or 3.

I am adding the pob.sg as a candidate for persistent e-mail and as a tendered-
out third level domain.  The ideas there come from some work being done at
the NCB and also from Dave Conrad's tendering scheme (which I dropped in
version 0.3).

Summary 0.4 to 0.5:

Reviewed the requirement for *.org.sg.  By insisting that all applications
be registered with the Registry of Society BEFORE the dns is too bureaucratic.
There are valid reasons for insisting that for .com.sg/.biz.sg.  For .org.sg, 
on the other hand, by making this optional, we all for the quick establishment 
of such dns.  The turn around time for the ROS to register a new organization 
is sometimes stretching to 12 months.  The Registry of Companies and Businesses
on the other hand seem to work a lot faster (2 weeks to a month).

==========================================================================
Harish Pillay h.pillay@ieee.org
July 11th 1995
SG-DNS-NAMES-RFC Version 0.5

				The SG Domain

1.0 Status of this Memo

1.1 This is an alpha version of a proposed SG Internet Domain Naming
Scheme.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

1.2 This memo would eventually take the form of a RFC and would be binding
to all Internet access sites under the SG domain.

2.0 Naming Structure

2.1 Singapore being a city-state enjoys a status where we do not have states 
as a political subdivision.  This lets us tag the numerous entities we have 
to the second tier.  This lets the SG domain to be creative in it's structure.

2.2 Additional criteria to the structure are:
   a) Scalability:  The DN must be scalable allowing for growth that is
                    manageable, logical, maintainable and sensible.
   b) Addition of new 2nd tiers:  This DN uses three letters in it's 2nd tier
                    instead of two letters as a trade off to provide a 
                    mechanism for new, yet unknown, future additions.
   c) Pronounceability: This is NOT important and is used only when there
                    is a choice of multiple names.  The preference will be 
                    given to the one that is pronouceable.
   d) Identifiability:  The domain name should help identify the nature of
                    the domain - be it educational, commercial and so on. This
                    is to allow for the creation of individual, user-centered
                    domain names.

2.3 The SG domain will use 3-letter name tokens in it's 2nd tier level.  

2.4 The proposed hierarchy is as follows:

   com.sg: All commercial organizations - sole proprietorships, private
           limited companies and public-listed companies.  Entries in this
           group have to be registered with the Registry of Companies and
           Businesses.  This DN could potentially grow to levels that it
           may not be easily managed.  At the state of current technology,
           when the number of sites reach about 30,000, the com.sg will
           be closed.  The number indicated will be reviewed, upwards in
           all likelihood, from time to time to account for technical 
           advances.

	   Administered by SGNIC.

   biz.sg: Same as com.sg.  This DNS will not be used until the .com.sg
	   second level is "full" based on the suggested 30,000 names.

	   Administered by SGNIC.
 
   edu.sg: This will be the second-level for all education
           institutions. These include universities, polytechnics, and
           institutes of special and technical education, junior colleges,
           secondary and primary schools and kindergartens.  This would
           mean that all current ac.sg sites and nus.sg will have a CNAME
           record in the primary and secondary nameservers to provide the
           mapping.  At a future date to be determined by the proposed SGNIC,
           the CNAME translation will be dropped.  Included in the change
           will be moe.ac.sg to moe.gov.sg.

	   The delegation of the edu.sg will be held by SGNIC.  SGNIC will
	   delegate the following to the respective institutions:

	   nus.edu.sg: National University of Singapore NIC or equivalent
	   ntu.edu.sg: Nanyang Technologial University NIC or equivalent
	   sp.edu.sg: Singapore Polytechnic NIC or equivalent
	   np.edu.sg: Ngee Ann Polytechnic NIC or equivalent
	   tp.edu.sg: Temasek Polytechnic NIC or equivalent
	   nyp.edu.sg: Nanyang Polytechnic NIC or equivalent

   	   All schools under the Ministry of Education and including 
	   independent, autonomous and privately-run schools will be 
	   placed under one of the following:

	   jc.edu.sg, inst.edu.sg, sec.edu.sg, pri.edu.sg, pte.edu.sg

	   The authority for the preceding third-level will be be with
	   the Ministry of Education NIC or equivalent.  

	   Here are some examples of these sites:
	   All Junior Colleges and the following are examples:
              anderson.jc.edu.sg,
              anglo-chinese.jc.edu.sg, 
              catholic.jc.edu.sg,
              hwa-chong.jc.edu.sg,
              jurong.jc.edu.sg,
              nanyang.jc.edu.sg,
              national.jc.edu.sg,
              serangoon.jc.edu.sg,
              st-andrews.jc.edu.sg,
              raffles.jc.edu.sg, 
              tampines.jc.edu.sg,
              temasek.jc.edu.sg,
              victoria.jc.edu.sg,
              yishun.jc.edu.sg.

	   All 3-year pre-university schools (for example):
              jurong.inst.edu.sg, 
              outram.inst.edu.sg, 
              seletar.inst.edu.sg, 
              townsville.inst.edu.sg.

	   All secondary schools.  The names can be either the commonly
           known initials or a full name to remove ambiguity.  The aim
           is to keep the name identifiable with what is in common use.
	   Commonsense rules will be applied for these names.

           For example: 
              ri.sec.edu.sg: Raffles Institution
              sji.sec.edu.sg: St Joseph's Institution
              asci.sec.edu.sg: ACS (Independent).
              acs.sec.edu.sg: ACS (Barker Road).
              temasek.sec.edu.sg: Temasek Secondary School.
              raffles-girls.sec.edu.sg: Raffles Girls' Secondary School.
              tkgs.sec.edu.sg: Tanjong Katong Girls' Secondary School.

	   All primary schools - raffles-girls.pri.sch.sg, 
               temasek.pri.edu.sg.

	   All privately-run and special education schools.  The private
           schools have the option of being under com.sg as these are 
           commercially run entities.

	   Administered by SGNIC.

   net.sg: All networks.  So technet.sg would be technet.net.sg (or whatever
	   the new network is to be called), singnet.com.sg would be 
	   singnet.net.sg.  A distinction will be made to the aspects of the
	   business of such networks.  The aspect of their business that is
	   dialup shall remain as singnet.com.sg, for example, while the leased
	   line component shall be singnet.net.sg.

	   Administered by SGNIC.

   gov.sg: All government related entities.  This is potentially a large
          domain and would have to be subdivided into a third tier as such:
	  Some suggested examples of such DNS are:
	  mindef.gov.sg: Ministry of Defense.
   	  mita.gov.sg: Ministry of Information and the Arts.
   	  env.gov.sg: Environment Ministry.
   	  moe.gov.sg: Ministry of Education.
   	  law.gov.sg: Law Ministry.
   	  mha.gov.sg: Ministry of Home Affairs.
   	  health.gov.sg: Ministry of Health.
   	  mti.gov.sg: Ministry of Trade and Industry.
   	  finance.gov.sg: Ministry of Finance.
   	  mnd.gov.sg: Ministry of National Development.
   	  mincom.gov.sg: Ministry of Communication.
   	  mcd.gov.sg: Ministry of Community Development.
   	  jud.gov.sg: The Judiciary.
	  parl.gov.sg: The Parliament.
	  pmo.gov.sg: The Prime Minister's Office.
	  prez.gov.sg: The President's Office.
	  www.gov.sg: The Web site for the government.

	  Departments that under a ministry, for example, Public Works 
	  Department, has the choice of being pwd.mnd.gov.sg or pwd.gov.sg.
	  This is a policy decision that is not addressed in this RFC.  It 
	  will be mutually decided upon jointly by the Domain Name 
	  Administrators of both gov.sg and mnd.gov.sg. 

	  Administered by SGNIC.

   org.sg: Organizations that are clubs, societies, associations and including
          political parties.  This domain name can have a one more level to 
          indicate entities such as community centers, resident's committees
          and political parties.

          cc.org.sg: Community Centers.
          rc.org.sg: Residents' Committees.
          po.org.sg: Political Organization.
          rotary.org.sg: The Rotary Club.
          lions.org.sg: The Lions Club.
	  twc.org.sg: The Town Councils.

	  Administered by SGNIC.

   www.sg: A main web server for SG domain.  This Web server does not
	 necessarily belong to the government nor it's officers.  It is 
	 meant to be a common entry point to all Web sites in the SG 
	 domain and shall remain neutral.  This Second Level DNS does 
	 not have subsidiary levels.

	 Administered by SGNIC.

   nii.sg: The National Information Infrastructure.  

	 Administered by SGNIC.

   pob.sg: The e-mail post office box persistent address mechanism.  This is 
	 a scheme to provide a persistent e-mail address to users that are 
	 independent of their internet access provider/employer/school.  This 
	 mechanism will operate via the establishment of third-level domains 
	 to whom users can subscribe to.  These third LDs will provide just 
	 the routing of address to real e-mail addresses.  As this domain can 
	 become very large and has to be broken down into sections that can be 
	 put out for tender/bid/auction valid for say five (5) years.  The 
	 exact nature of this third LD will be up to SGNIC to propose.

	 Administered by SGNIC.

3.0 Request for DNS Support

3.1 Any entity or individual can request for a domain name under the SG
hierarchy.  

3.2 An individual or entity is not restricted to her/their choice of an 
internet access/service provider.  If the chosen IAP/ISP is not one that 
operates under the SG domain, then the requestor will be levied an annual 
administrative charge to cover the cost of providing the DNS support.  

3.3 The SGNIC or some such entity will decide on the charges for such
administrative activities.  The cost shall not be prohibitive and must
be reasonable.  The SGNIC or some such entity will have to right to waive 
such administrative charges on a case by case basis.

3.4 Support for an entity under the SG domain does not imply that such
an organization is physically located in the political and geographical
entity of Singapore.  Being under the SG domain is a logical association
rather than a physical one.  This is exactly what is the case when
an entity is registered under the Top Level Domain of .com, .org, .int
and .net.  Such a scheme allows for organizations that belong to a SG entity - 
for example, the Singapore Embassy in Manila - to be under the DNS 
embassy-manila.mfa.gov.sg even though they are physically located in Manila.

3.5 Domain names requested for shall be names that are not commonly regarded 
as words that are derogatory or potentially offensive.  The language used
to determine will be English and transliterations of words into English from 
other common languages.  The SGNIC will reject all such requests.  The 
requestor whose domain name request was denied shall appeal to the Chief 
Administrator of SGNIC for reconsideration.  The Chief Administrator of 
SGNIC decision on this issue shall be final.
  
4.0 Resolution of Name Conflicts

4.1 All requests for a domain name will be accepted on a first come, first
served basis.

4.2 Should there be a conflict of names, the second and all subsequent 
requestors will be told of such (see also 5.0 below) and asked to pick a 
new one.

4.3 DNS registration requests will be provided on a form modelled after
what is used by APNIC and Internic - modified as appropriate for terminology
and context.

4.4 Entities registering under the com.sg/biz.sg shall provide to the SGNIC
proof of their existence by way of a business certificate or a copy of a 
government gazette indicating that they are indeed legally constituted entities.Failing to pro
vide such proof puts the application on hold and the requestor 
will be duly notified.  After one week of being notified, the application will 
be rejected if nothing is forthcoming and the application sent back to the 
requestor.

4.5 *.org.sg requests can be made by any group.  Proof of registration with
the Registry of Societies would be optional.  When a conflict of names occur,
section 4.2 above will apply.  If two or more applications for the same domain 
name are received and before registration is completed by SGNIC, the application
which was first in and complete with ROS registration will be granted the 
domain name.

4.6 Should a domain name be granted and subsequently found to be a tradename
or copyrighted by some other entity, the SGNIC or some such entity that granted
the domain name will not be liable for any legal action.  It is upto the holder
of the legal tradename or copyright to settle the right of use and ownership 
with the holder of the domain name.

5.0 Reclaiming Domainnames

5.1 Reclaiming domainnames will be done only when there is a request for
registration of an existing domain name.  When such a request is made, the
SGNIC will inform the current holders of the requested domain name to indicate 
if the domain name is active and in use.  If the domain name holder does not 
indicate that the domain name is in use or active, the SGNIC will reclaim the 
domain name and re-issue it to the new requestor.

5.2 In order that this reclamation is done fairly, SGNIC will with due 
diligence and in good faith, inform the current known holder of the domain 
name using all normal means of communication including electronic mail, 
postal mail, fax and phone calls.

5.3 A period of one month shall be provided to let the current holder
of a domain name to respond.  Failing which, the SGNIC will consider that
the domain name has been given up and re-issue it to the new requestor.

6.0 Adding New Second Level Domains

6.1 The SG domain structure is designed to be extended at the second
level when needed.

6.2 A second level domain (SLD) shall be created when there is an need for one.
It shall be proposed to the SGNIC by anyone from the Internet community in 
Singapore or could have been brought up by the SGNIC on it's own.

6.3 A public discussion period of at least one month is needed to determine
if there really is a need for such a SLD.

6.4 After the one month period, the SGNIC will decide after considering
all the arguments stated for and against such a request.  This decision
will be made in good faith and with the intention to make the SG domain
structure clear and consistent and for the greater good of the Singaporean
Internet community.

=============================================================================

Singapore DNS White Pages from 1995


Here is the first version of the directory list of domain names in Singapore as compiled by Kace Ong and Mathias Koerber:

================================================
SINGAPORE DOMAIN NAME WHITE PAGES - Version 0.01
================================================
Compiled by Kace Ong (Kace@telematique.com) 22/7/95
from DNSWALK report produced by 
Mathias Koerber (Mathias.Koerber@SWi.com.sg)
This white pages will be updated periodically.

HOW TO READ: the domain address of an organisation is the
reverse juxtaposition of its classification.  For example,
the address of NTU's School of Accountancy and Business is
"sab.ntu.ac.sg".

If you want to mail someone at a domain address but do not
know the email address, try sending it to the postmaster
at that address, e.g. postmaster@ncb.gov.sg.  


================================================
ac/		Academic Institutions 
		(Note: this may be changed to EDU soon)
================================================

	acs/		Anglo Chinese School
	iseas/		Institute of South East Asian Studies
	moe/		Ministry of Education
			(Note: wrong place; MOE should be under .gov)
	nie/		National Institute of Education
	np/		Ngee Ann Polytechnic
	ntu/		Nanyang Technological University
		admin/		Admin
		cgc/		Computer Graphics
		cnt/
		cse/		Civil & Structural Engineering
		eee/		Electrical & Electronic Engineering
		gintic/		
		imt/		Institute of Manufacturing Technology
		mpe/		Mechanical & Production Engineering
		sab/		Accountancy & Business
		sas/		Applied Science
		scs/
	nyp/		Nanyang Polytechnic
	ofs/		Overseas Family School
	sasmid/		Singapore American School
	sp/		Singapore Polytechnic
	ssd/
	tp/ 		Temasek Polytechnic          

================================================
com/		Companies & Businesses
================================================

	abacus/		Abacus 
	asia1/		Singapore Press Holdings
	asiapages/	Integrated Information 
	aztech/		Aztech
	bateyads/	Batey Ads
	brel/		Brel 
	ctron/
	delteq/		Delteq
	digicon-spr/
	discreet/
	fact/		Fact Software
	fsl/		Fujitsu
	gs/		Gatesoft Technology
	iipl/		Integrated Information
	iland/		iMedia
	ilog/
	imedia/		iMedia
	nec/		NEC
	net1/		Singapore Press Holdings
	nicotra/
	nol/		Neptune Orient Lines
	omni/		Omni Plastic
	proteq/		Proteq
	rspl/
	santeh/		San Teh
	scs/		ST Computer Systems
	shownet/
	sia/
	siae/
	singalab/	SingaLab
	singaporeair/	Singapore Airlines
	singnet/	Singnet
	singtel/	Singapore Telecom
	sns/		Singapore Network Systems
	sony/		Sony Design
	sph/		Singapore Press Holdings
	spice/		spice.com
	st/		Singapore Technology
	stcs/		ST Computer Systems
	swi/		SWi
	swizer/		Swizer
	tcs/		Television Corporation of Singapore
	techparks/	Technology Parks
	teleview/	Teleview
	telif/		Telif
	tmi/		Tritech Microelectronics
	wtk/		Wearnes Technology
	yas/		Yokogawa

================================================
gov/		Government Entities
================================================

	cs/
	hdb/		Housing & Development Board
	icis/		Institute of Communication & Information Systems
	ime/		Institute of Microelectronics
	iti/		Information Technology Institute
	mita/		Ministry of Information and the Arts
	ncb/		National Computer Board
	nstb/		National Science & Technology Board
	sgh/		Singapore General Hospital
	starnet/	(Defence-related)
	tdb/		Trade Development Board
	ttsh/  		Tan Tok Seng Hospital

================================================
net/		Autonomous Networks
		(Note: No entry so far)
================================================

================================================
nus/		National University of Singapore
		(Note: why NUS is 2nd level while NTU is 3rd?)
================================================

	arch/		Architecture
	cadcam/		CAD CAM Centre
	cc/		Computer Centre
	cpa/
	crc/		Cyberspace Hospital
	crisp/		Remote Sensing
	cwc/		Wireless Communication
	cz/
	cz3/
	ee/		Electrical Engineering
	fba/		Business Administration
	imcb/		Institute of Micro and Cellular Biology
	iscs/		Information Systems & Computer Science
	ise/
	iss/		Institute of Systems Science
	math/		Mathematics
	mtc/		Magnetic Technology
	nsrc/		National Supercomputing Researching Centre
	pc/
	physics/	Physics

================================================
org/		Other Organisations
================================================

	britcoun/	British Council
	cicc/		
	idrc/		International Development & Research Centre
	pop/
	rotaract/	Rotaract Club
	sad/
	stf/		Security Task Force
	sw/     

================================================
technet/	Technet
		(Note: this may be moved to technet.com.sg soon)
================================================